Critical stuff that every junior C# developer must know


Says Mosh Hamedani, author of courses on C# at udemy

Mosh, I just got my first junior level C# job. What advice do you have for me? What are some critical stuff I need to learn?

So, whether you’re looking for your first junior C# job, or you just got one, this post will give you an overview of the kind of skills that you need to be familiar with as a junior C# developer. I’ve tried to put it in a “learning path” that would give you direction, whether you want to build web or desktop applications.

Before getting into details, I need to clarify something: as a junior, you’re not expected to know everything! No one does, even many senior developers! The world of programming is so big and it’s constantly getting bigger. So, every developer has strengths in some specific areas based on the projects they have worked on.

For each skill, I’ve added one or more links to good resources I have found. If you know better resources, please let me know and I’ll update the post.

Core Skills

Whether you want to focus on building desktop or windows apps, here are a few key things that you must know.


Data Structures and Algorithms

If you don’t have a computer science degree, I strongly recommend you to spend only one month and study data structures and algorithms. These are the alphabets of programming. Sure you can skip this and jump straight into web development stuff, but trust me, there is a difference between a programmer who has been exposed to data structures and algorithms and one who hasn’t. This stuff help you think like a programmer.

You may be surprised that most big companies like Microsoft, Apple and Amazon dedicate a significant part (if not all) of their technical interviews to data structures and algorithms, not ASP.NET 5 or WPF! Because they just want to see if you can think like a programmer or not.

This is a good book to get you started:
Data Structures and Algorithms Made Easy

If you get stuck on some parts, don’t get discouraged. Move on. Just make sure you understand the basics of lists, stacks, queues, trees and hashtables. Try to implement each of these data structures using plain C# (arrays, loops, conditionals) without using LINQ or .NET collections. Implement a couple of search and sort algorithms.


SQL Server is the most commonly used Relational Database Management System (DBMS) amongst .NET developers. Make sure you’re familiar with the basics of relational databases and how to create tables, views and stored procedures in SQL Server.

T-SQL is the query language we use to query or modify data in a SQL Server database. Make sure you know your SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, JOIN and GROUP BY.

Zero to Hero with Microsoft SQL Server 2014
T-SQL Step by Step


When using a relational database, we often use an Object/Relational Mapper (O/RM) to save or load objects in a database. There are many O/RMs out there including Entity Framework, nHibernate, Dapper, PetaPoco, etc, but Entity Framework is the most commonly used amongst many teams.

Getting Started with Entity Framework 7

I also have a comprehensive 6-hour Entity Framework course on Udemy.

For Web Development

Building web applications is fundamentally different from building desktop applications. A web application at a minimum includes two parts: one that runs in the user’s browser (front-end), and one that runs on the server (back-end). As you view web pages in your browser, click on buttons and links, a request is sent from your browser to the server. The request is processed on the server, some data fetched from or written to the database and results are returned to your browser.

Web developers are often classified in three groups:

  • Front-end developers
  • Back-end developers
  • Full-stack developers: those who do both the front-end and the back-end

You should choose one of these paths depending on your interests. Full-stack developers often have more job opportunities because they can do both the front-end and the back-end.

As a front-end developer, you need to be familiar with basics of HTML, CSS and Javascript at a minimum.

HTML is the markup language we use to build structure for a web page. Unlike programming languages like C#, it doesn’t have logic.With the structure in place, we use CSS to make the page beautiful. CSS is all about styles (colors, padding, borders, fonts, etc). And finally we use Javascript to add behaviour to a webpage: what happens when you click a button or drag-and-drop an element.

HTML & CSS for Beginners
Learn to Code HTML & CSS
HTML5 & CSS Fundamentals on Channel9
Javascript on Code Academy


ASP.NET MVC is the dominant framework (amongst C# developers) for building web applications on the server. As an ASP.NET MVC developer, you should still have some basic familiarity with HTML, CSS and Javascript. So, I’d suggest you to start with front-end development and then move to back-end development, which would make you a full-stack developer.

Here is a comprehensive tutorial I’ve published on Udemy blog to get you started. I’ll show you how to build a simple application with CRUD operations using ASP.NET MVC5 and Entity Framework6:

A Step-by-Step ASP.NET MVC Tutorial for Beginners

For Desktop Development

If you want to build desktop applications for Windows, you need a different set of skills than HTML, CSS and Javascript. Even though some are working on using HTML, CSS and Javascript to build desktop applications, it’s still new and 99% of the jobs out there require you to know XAML, WPF or Windows Forms.


WPF: A Beginner’s Guide

If you’re a junior C# developer and have a question, drop a comment below and I’ll do my best to guide you in the right direction. If you’re an experienced C# developer and think I missed something to include in this post, or you know better resources for any of these topics, please let me know. I’ll update the post.


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